But the difficulties occur mediante a new principality
Durante doing so I will keep to the order indicated above, and discuss how such principalities are puro be ruled and preserved
I will leave out all tete-a-tete on republics, inasmuch as con another place I have written of them at length, and will address myself only onesto principalities.
I say at once there are fewer difficulties in holding hereditary states, and those long accustomed onesto the family of their prince, than new ones; for it is sufficient only not to transgress the customs of his ancestors, and sicuro deal prudently with circumstances as they arise, for per prince of average powers sicuro maintain himself mediante his state, unless he be deprived of it by some extraordinary and creuse force; and if he should be so deprived of it, whenever anything sinister happens to the usurper, he will regain it.
We have con Italy, for example, the Duke of Ferrara, who could not have withstood the attacks of the Venetians mediante ’84, nor those of Pope Julius per ’10, unless he had been long established per his dominions. For the hereditary prince has less cause and less necessity preciso offend; hence it happens that he will be more loved; and unless extraordinary vices cause him to be hated, it is reasonable sicuro expect that his subjects will be naturally well disposed towards him; and mediante the antiquity and duration of his rule the memories and motives that make for change are lost, for one change always leaves the toothing for another.
CHAPTER III. CONCERNING MIXED PRINCIPALITIES
And firstly, if it be not entirely new, but is, as it were, a member of per state which, taken collectively, may be called composite, the changes arise chiefly from an inherent difficulty which there is sopra all new principalities; for men change their rulers willingly, hoping esatto better themselves, and this hope induces them esatto take up arms against him who rules: wherein they are deceived, because they afterwards find by experience they have gone from bad onesto worse. This follows also on another natural and common necessity, which always causes verso new prince onesto burden those who have submitted puro him with his soldiery and with infinite other hardships which he must put upon his new acquisition.
Durante this way you have enemies in all those whom you have injured in seizing that principality, and you are not able preciso keep those friends who put you there because of your not being able puro satisfy them mediante the way they expected, and you cannot take strong measures against them, feeling bound esatto them. For, although one may be very strong mediante armed forces, yet durante entering a province one has always need of the goodwill of the natives.
For these reasons Louis the Twelfth, King of France, quickly occupied Milan, and as quickly lost it; and to turn him out the first time it only needed Lodovico’s own forces; because those who had opened the gates puro him, finding themselves deceived mediante their hopes of future benefit, would not endure the ill-treatment of the new prince. It is very true that, after acquiring rebellious provinces per second time, they are not so lightly lost afterwards, because the prince, with little reluctance, takes the opportunity of the rebellion sicuro punish the delinquents, puro clear out the suspects, and puro strengthen himself per the weakest places. Thus puro cause France onesto lose Milan the first time it was enough for the Duke Lodovico to raise insurrections on the borders; but preciso cause him to lose it a second time it was necessary esatto bring the whole world against him, and that his armies should be defeated and driven out of Italy; which followed from the causes above mentioned.